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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND THE CHINESE LANDLORDS IN TANGERANG



"Apa saja mesti toetoep moeloet saja tida boleh menja'oet?"
Oey Ek Kiam, a Chinese landowner in Batavia, when dispute with Assistant-Resident,
9th December 1892
ON MISSION
Save our heritage or perished, it is not only bad news, but an attention and statement that delivered to the government [especially Tangerang Regional Government], communities who concern about the preservation of heritage buildings, and all people who read our journey.

Based on the picture of architecture study about old buildings surrounding Jakarta published by National University of Singapore, I and Dharmawan Handonowarih [Editor in Chief of IDEA Magazine] cruised the former rubber plantation house in Tangerang on Sunday, 23rd November 2008.

It is the nearly forgotten country house in Tangerang, suburb of Jakarta. Located about quarter of Imam Bonjol-Teuku Umar Street, village of Karawaci Baru, Tangerang, westbank of Cisadane River (in map from 19th century known as Tjisadanee River).

As we knew, in 1874 the government of Netherlands Indies introduced the early rubber plantation in Java. This building was formerly owned by biggest Chinese landlord of rubber plantation. Now, his descendants owned this mansion. However, they don't reside in their ancestor house.

Today, this country house is inhabited by four families within.

Unfortunately, this building was not included the Heuken's Historical Sites of Jakarta in the chapter of country house and former residences of big estate owner. Really neglected building!

THE MAP: TANGERANG - BATAVIA
According Pranoedya Ananta Toer, "Tangerang" as the name of region or place was the incorrect spelling from inheritance Dutch. It should be wrote and spell as "Tanggeran", anyway.

Source:
mahandisyoanata.multiply.com/photos/album/109/
In 1811, Major William Thorn, a British soldier, reported that Tangerang is well cultivated, interspersed with several seats or Dutch farm, producing rice, and the greatest part of the grass for the consumption of horses in town. Also this city was crossed by Tjidanee River and have fine sluice then runs parallel to the road whole way to Batavia.
The private lands of most Chinese officers in Batavia were located in Tangerang, where a Chinese private domain practically. In 1888, Tangerang was the largest Chinese population in Java, that dispersed in three districts: Balaradja, Mauk, and Tangerang.

Peta Tangerang Zaman Belanda.
According "Confidential letter of the Resident of Batavia to Governor-Generaal, 15th May 1888”, we knew that, despite Tangerang was the land’s of Chinese officer, however they prefer live in to Batavia.
According " Gouvernementsbesluit, 27th December 1846 No.7 " we knew that Chinese landowners were more flexible than Europeans in dealing with native tenants, they tend to accommodate the domestic needs of their tenants. Whereas the Europeans were strictly law-abiding and kept their distance from their native tenants. It gave the native uncomfortable feeling of inferiority.
Let's see the several Chinese officers in the end of 19th century who owned the lands in Tangerang below:
1. Major Tan Eng Goan, a first landowner of Kramat, Kapuk, Tandjoeng Boeroeng, and Rawa Kidang.
2. Captain Lie Tjoe Tjiang, a landowner of Sepatan, Karang Serang Laut, Karang Serang Dalam, and Rajeg.
3. Lieutenant Tan Boen Peng, a landowner of Bodjong Renget, Pangkalan, de Qual (known as Pesing now), and Tegalangus.
4. Lieutenant Souw Siauw Tjong, a landowner of Paroengkoeda, Paroeng-East, and Ketapang.
5. Captain Nie Ek Tjiang, settled in Mauk, and owned some lands in Tangerang.
6. The last Chinese officers in 19th century, here Captain Oey Giok Koen, owned the land of Pasar Baroe in Tangerang.
7. Lieutenant Oey Djie San, he was director of the private estate of Karawaci-Tjilongok. He was admired for his Dutch education and fluency in the language.

However, the private lands that owned by Chinese in Tangerang have suggested to Batavia's self-sufficiently for agricultural products, such as rice, and sugar. Whereas the plantation product such as rubber was introduced in the end of 19th century or early 20th century.

Djie San Gallery
A SLICE HISTORY OF COUNTRY HOUSE OF RUBBER PLANTATION:
A MYSTERIOUS LANDOWNER
Who is the landowner of this country house? I asked to inhabitants, but they don't know the present day owner, even they reside within this house. A weird answer?

According "Sinar Harapan” in 2003, a daily newspaper in Jakarta, wrote that the owner this country house was the important Chinese person who influenced in Tangerang. He was landowned of rubber plantation in the westward of Tangerang (presently known as Perum I and Perum II). His descendants don’t want to reside in this house, even present day they prefer to live in Jakarta, Magelang, and The Netherlands. The rubber plantation in Tangerang was closed down in 1965.

However, I am still in searching about the former owner of land in Karawaci and its surroundings. Probably, was Lieutenant Oey Djie San the owner of this country house, because he was a director of the private estate of Karawaci-Tjilongok? It could be, but, probably he was not the first owner because he lived in the end of 19th century, whereas the country house was built in the end 18th century. For the best answer I need your support.

SAVE OUR HERITAGE, WE NEED YOUR ATTENTION!
Since September 2008, the present day owner has been pulling down of the primary building. What a pity, beautiful Chinese mansion was destroyed by business interests, now the destruction is still on progress. It's threatening the secondary building.

We still have only a little time to terminate this vandalism of heritage building. There is no one who cares about the vanishing old buildings. Please, save our heritage!

"…satoe orang kapala miring boeat djadie kapala negeri…" A native letter, dated 19th March 1893, and other complaints kept in Goevernementsbesluit, 24th August 1893.

*** REFERENCES
De Bond van Nederlandse Architecten. "Het Indische Bouwen: Architectuur en Stedebouw in Indonesie", Seminar: Change and Heritage in Indonesian Cities, 27-30 September 1988.
Lohanda, Mona. "The Kapitan Cina of Batavia 1837 – 1942", Cooperation between Penerbit Djambatan and KITLV, Second Edition, 2001. Toer, Pramoedya A. " Jalan Raya Pos Jalan Daendels”, Lentera Dipa Nusantara, 2005.
Thorn, William. " The Conquest of Java”, First Published in London 1815, Periplus, 2004.

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